Timeline of Egypt
Cut in Stone
by Anatoly T. Fomenko
Tatiana N. Fomenko
Wieslaw Z. Krawcewic
Gleb V. Nosovskij

We are all aware that history can not be considered as an area of knowledge where the portrayed facts are scientifically supported. It was always an arena for political or nationalistic manipulations and smaller or larger falsification. Ancient history is not an exception and in fact its problems are more serious than one could suspect.

All the authors of this book are mathematicians and we would like to illustrate how modern applied mathematics can be used to investigate the chronology of ancient events. Our results challenge the correctness of the ancient chronology supported by the overwhelming opinion of reputable experts in history. It is not our intention to create a sensation or to discredit anybody. Our objective is to attract more attention to a serious scientific problem.

We are aware that it was always extremely hard to introduce principally new ideas in any field of knowledge. There are numerous examples in physics, mathematics, biology, medicine and other sciences, when the new theories were only accepted after long years of absolute rejection by almost all experts. Nevertheless, every area of science had its turning points when, with hesitation and lots of pain, old and well established knowledge was rejected to accept new concepts. Such reversals happened before in astronomy, mechanics, chemistry, physics and even in mathematics.

There were also reversals in economics and psychology as well. Surprisingly, the historical chronology throughout the last four centuries remains intact. There was no significant improvement of the chronology in spite of the computer technology and modern methods of data analysis.

Nowadays, more and more mathematics is used in social areas. During the last century, economics owes its development to mathematics.

There is a growing need for mathematics in psychology, sociology, demography, social epidemiology and criminology. Not surprisingly, mathematics is also trying to make its contribution in areas that seem to be quite distant from it.

Historical chronology, when it was created in the 17th century was considered as a part of mathematics (even J. Scaliger, who is know as the creator of the presently accepted version of the chronology, considered himself to be a mathematician). Later, it was incorporated as a part of history, which is a pure social science not relying on the natural sciences methodology. Without solid scientific tools, historians are not able to solve principal problems existing in the chronology (clearly, problems exist in any area of knowledge).

In our book, we will show that there are serious problems in a very foundation of the conventional chronology.

How anybody can be sure that historical events we learned about in school, from books or even movies, really took place? Maybe some of them are simply fairy tales or fantasies that are considered now to be historical facts. However, a prevailing opinion is that there is no reason to worry about the accuracy of the conventional chronology.

Historians claim that their work provides us with clear and comprehensive explanations of every historical epoch and that strictly scientific methods, for example the carbon-14 dating and dendrochronology support it. However, there are serious problems with usage of physical methods to support the conventional chronology.

The astronomical dating, using contemporary scientific theories, remains in fact the only method that can produce reliable precise dates for ancient events. In particular, remains of many old Egyptian zodiacs containing horoscopes are important material for such dating. Analysis of some of these horoscopes was already attempted in the 18th and 19th centuries but did not lead to any solid date.

Recently it was discovered (see [109]) that Egyptian zodiacs contain much more astronomical information that it was previously believed. This gave us an opportunity to establish dozens of unique dates from the ancient Egyptian history. It appears that it is possible to determine with very high confidence the exact dates represented on the Egyptian zodiacs. In this book we have analyzed several accessible to us old Egyptian zodiacs containing valid astronomical data (horoscopes).

These zodiacs were created in form of reliefs, carvings in stone or paintings. The purpose of this book is to astronomically date all these zodiacs. The obtained dates appear to be much later than it is suggested in the conventional chronology of Egypt. In this book are not going to discuss in this book how serious are the implications of these new dates on the ancient history.

Our only objective is to present a serious scientific evidence without making any a priori assumption of its correctness or incorrectness. Our research is independent of the restrictions imposed by the conventional chronology. Being mathematicians, we simply solve the puzzle of ancient Egyptian zodiacs, where the hidden dates were encoded inside the horoscopes.

We find these dates and let them speak for themselves.

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