ANTIQUITY OF MAN

COULD MEN EXIST 18,000,000 YEARS AGO?

To this Occultism answers in the affirmative, notwithstanding all scientific objectors.

(Madame Blavatsky, The Secret Doctrine, 1888, II, 148.)

The ever-blooming lands of the Second Continent (Greenland, among others) were transformed, in order, from Edens with their eternal spring, into hyperborean Hades. This transformation was due to the displacement of the great waters of the globe, to oceans changing their beds; and the bulk of the Second Race perished in this first great throe of the evolution and consolidation of the globe during the human period. (S.D. II, 138.)

FEW if any of the thinking people of the world now deny the evolutionary history of the human race in some form; yet between the evolution taught by Theosophy and that taught by science lies as great a gulf as between the hypotheses of science and the "creation" taught by theology.

Science upholds the evolution of man from the Kingdoms below; Theosophy the evolution of the Kingdoms below from Spiritual Man. Theosophy claims man to have been the first of the mammals; science, the last. But what is the actual evidence? Theories, beliefs, and prejudices hold with but uncertain grip to the strides of Great Nature; and he who would by these frail links bind himself to unchanging Truth must sooner or later find himself shaken off, face downward in the dust of exploded error. Magna est veritas et prevalebit.

Facts must be grasped and held with unfailing tenacity, whatever their origin or their surface appearance, attractive or repellent. But let there be any clinging to theory; let any speculation, however authoritative, however venerable, however plausible, be made for a moment the criterion of the slightest fact, and entry is made upon a path of error whose deviation from the straight line may become incalculable. For one inconsiderable disinherited fact leads quickly to the burial of a greater, until the homage due only to truth is religiously rendered to some pompous theory whose support, unknown to its worshippers, has, little by little and unperceived, receded from the condition of the latest and most reasonable attainable evidence to that of mere unfounded tradition passed from generation to generation.

So at the present day it is with the scientific theory of the origin of man -- an imposing giant with front of brass and body of mist and moonlight, whose ultimate downfall must bring confusion to many a sincere and devoted follower.

Beginning investigation with the elementary manifestations of evolutionary forces, it is seen that science has from the first taught the origin of the earth as a matter of incandescent clouds condensing into molten rock and thence gradually cooling and giving rise to living forms which have ever since evolved with relative rapidity in a general straight-line direction.

From the beginning elsewhere, and since 1875 in the Occident, Theosophy has taught that the earth evolved with physical matter itself from universal primordial homogeneous Substance into concreteness and complexity.

Science has taught that a relatively few millions of years ago, earth was uninhabitable, while Theosophy has taught that man himself -- science's "latest creation," has endured in much his present form for incalculable ages, his very consciousness consolidating pari passu with the evolution of matter itself. And the duration of that evolution may best be calculated by the predictable period necessary for its descending cycle; a period predictable through the discovery of radio-activity so accurately foretold by The Secret Doctrine.

Let us now listen to the latest dictum of science itself; a dictum three or four years old, but only now beginning to be publicly noted: Professor Menzies speculates on alternate periods of evolution and destruction followed by re-evolution; substantially the Theosophic doctrine of Manvantara and Pralaya, which Professor Menzies correctly sees symbolized in the Brahmanical doctrine of the "breath of Brahma." And Professor Soddy -- a man of substance, scientifically speaking, goes farther in daring by the belief that there have been races of men who developed civilizations high enough to be able to emigrate to other planets. Dr. Blackwelder of Stanford University finds the curve of earth's geological history is a wavy line, and not a uniformly rising one, while Professor A. P. Coleman informs the British Association of evidence showing that the earliest stones were formed in a cool climate of properties not unlike our present one.

Professor T. C. Chamberlain falls in line with Theosophy on more than one important point. He claims that the stratum of no life, the "azoic bottom," has vanished from human ken, relatively complex forms having been found in the oldest stones. He upholds the accretional theory which Theosophy pioneered in the West, and states that the climate has been cyclic from the depths of time, with little permanent change. There have been glacial periods back to the Proterozoic, arid stages before the Cambrian, and air-breathing animals before the Carboniferous, while warm climates have extended into the Arctic. Theosophists will recollect the voluminous evidence adduced by Madam Blavatsky in support of these propositions then so "unscientific." Professor Chamberlain grasps the fact that the elements have evolved in unknown manners in the deeps of earth. Theosophy adds that manifested matter constantly evolves wherever found, while on the upward cycle; and as constantly dissolves in any area of cosmic activity where the evolutionary energies have reached the limit of their scope for that cycle. And this dissolution -- the "nitya pralaya" of ancient philosophy, -- is simply radio-activity, which on this planet is now universal.

The chemist objects to current "straight-line" theories of evolution. (Prof. L. T. Henderson, Scientific American, January, 1923.) But grant eternal change in the properties of the elements themselves, and chemist and evolutionist may join hands: present difficulties may not have existed under another régime of chemical action. Thus in this as in most other matters, disconnected branches of science may achieve unity by proceeding along Theosophic lines.

Radio-activity stands as a witness that we have reached the pinnacle of possibility in the evolution of complexity in matter. The corollary which Theosophy adds is to the effect that further evolution of a nature dependent upon matter is out of order and unnatural, and that for us is now appointed evolution mental-spiritual. Man must now subjugate matter and rise above its boundaries, or remain within them and perish even more hopelessly than Lemuria and Atlantis of the forgotten past.

Thus, science no longer denying pre-mammalian humanity a habitable globe, Theosophy scores victory: mammalian man did exist; his age in relation to the animal kingdom is in exact measure to his mental superiority over that kingdom. But we shall be told that this is a speculation, reasonable perhaps from our view, but with no factual foundation. Science reserving to itself, we may say with all respect, the privilege of publishing speculation as fact, we are thus forced to employ its gleanings in furtherance of our object, the restoration to man of his lost birth-right of spiritual knowledge.

For, once force the age of man beyond the animal, and his beginning must be looked for in that region derided by science and degraded by religion -- the region of the metaphysical, the psychic, the mental, and the spiritual. The power of origination thus being assigned to that region, it is forthwith placed upon the throne of the manifested world; animal ratiocination, useful only for purposes of self, is shown in its true light as the darkness by contrast with which Spirit seeks to know Itself, and the death-blow is dealt modern theories of mechanical determinism, with their corollaries of "the right of might."

Making the spiritual world paramount involves a complete revision of the ethics of present-day life; it involves the substitution of the ONE LAW of impersonal, divine harmony and compassion for the mere expediency, dark child of matter and ignorance, which passes for morality in our business, religious, political, and scientific spheres today.

THE ORIGIN OF THE APE

It is evident, especially after the most fundamental principles of Darwinism, that an organized being cannot be a descendant of another whose development is in an inverse order to his own.... Consequently, in accordance with these principles, Man cannot be considered as the descendant of any simian type whatever. (de Quatrefages: The Human Species.)

The respective developments of the human and Simian brains are referred to. "In the ape the temporo-spheroidal convolutions, which form the middle lobe, make their appearance and are completed before the anterior convolutions which form the frontal lobe. In man, the frontal convolutions are, on the contrary, the first to appear, and those of the middle lobe are formed later."

Lucae's argument versus the Ape-theory, based on the different flexures of the bones constituting the axis of the skull in the cases of Man and the Anthropoids, is fairly discussed by Schmidt. ("Doctrine of Descent and Darwinism," p. 290). He admits that "the ape as he grows becomes more bestial; man ... more human," .... The writer evidently is not a little disquieted at the argument. He assures us that it upsets any possibility of the present apes having been the progenitors of mankind. But does it not also negative the bare possibility of the man and anthropoid having had a common -- though, so far, an absolutely theoretical -- ancestor? (The Secret Doctrine, 1888, Vol. II, 646.)

Such anthropoids form an exception because they were not intended by Nature, but are the direct product and creation of "senseless" man. ... the transformation of species most directly connected with that of the human family, a bastard branch engrafted on their own stock before the final perfection of the latter. (The Secret Doctrine, I, 185.)

That man was not the last member in the mammalian family, but the first in this Round, is something that science will be forced to acknowledge one day....

That man can be shown to have lived in the mid-Tertiary period, and in a geological age when there did not yet exist one single specimen of the now known species of mammals, is a statement that science cannot deny and which has now been proven by de Quatrefages. (The Secret Doctrine, II, 155.)

THUS, thirty-seven and forty-eight years ago, spoke H. P. Blavatsky, reinforced by her few unconscious scientific allies -- men half a century in advance of their generation.

These biological facts are unchangeable; the developments of the human and simian skulls are the same today as then. Why then have we not heard more on this point? Because it is one of those buried facts, every one of which, entombed in the limbos of science, takes with it into obscurity some fragment of vital truth.

But the dead, human or factual, are so in seeming only. Therefore we now find this old but indestructible obstacle rising like Banquo's ghost beside the festive board of scientific complacency; for Professors Hill-Tout and Coutière have pointed it out anew. And this is testimony not to be waved aside: Professor Hill-Tout, F.R.C.S., is not a nonentity in science, and Professor Coutière is of the Paris Academy of Medicine.

Professor Coutière accepts our own doctrine of the priority of man, if not his ancestorship of the ape; Professor Hill-Tout, more cautious or conservative, merely claims that the ape has diverged further than man from the original type. However, since this is equivalent to holding the ape a degenerate type, "'tis enough; 'twill serve."

Biologically, but one point remains to be disposed of; the existence of vestigial remains in the human body, now useless to him, but useful to the ape -- so it is claimed. It is a question whether some of this is not a post hoc, ergo, propter hoc, argument and whether biology would ever have found the appendix, for instance, of use to the ape had it not so conveniently fitted the theory. Nevertheless, Theosophy teaches that man was "ape-like" in the Third Race, though not an ape. For the ape is a complete being of low development, while man at that period was an incomplete being of a high order, the conscious indwelling Principle upon which material cognizance and rationality depends, not yet having been able to force the material into a condition permitting manifestation. Of course, the crux of this argument lies in the possibility of consciousness being able to exist independently of matter as we know it; but it is not the modern chemist, physicist, psychic researcher or embryologist who will dare deny that possibility in the face of the present-day trend of discovery; a trend signified by Professor McDougall's unchallenged address to a portion of the British Association in behalf of the theory of a conscious purposiveness behind evolution.

Geology, as we have shown, can no longer deny man a pre-mammalian habitation on earth; no biological fact opposes the descent of ape from man, and one incontrovertible fact does oppose the contrary theory.

With archeology and paleontology the battle seems more uncertain; here is a footing of quicksand, a maze of theory and speculation obscuring and distorting the underlying facts beyond all reason. Why should this be the case? Surely the records of the stones, which have disclosed in unmistakable manner the evolution of such animals as the horse, should be as clear in their testimony regarding man? Quite so; but the root difficulty is this: that two totally different orders of evolution are held to be one and the same; more, the one is judged solely and à priori by the evidence of the other. Undoubtedly the human record is definite and readable. But to this hour the attempts to decipher it have been made (officially) solely by those whose minds were governed from the first by the "animal ancestor" theory.

Thus it has happened that discovery after discovery attesting the vast antiquity of "modern" man has been set down as untrue or doubtful because it did not fit the theory. Discovery after discovery, debatable, unable to stand a moment in court of law, has been accepted with cursory investigation or none at all, because it did fit the theory.

Time after time the relative ages of strata have been distorted, unconsciously "fudged," to fit the prevailing theory; time after time have honest and earnest discoverers found themselves classified as fakers or lunatics, without investigation, without regard to bona fides, because -- their facts did not fit the theory. Science recognizes, and must recognize, this to have been the case in previous decades in all branches. Do we exaggerate? Then let us cite concrete examples -- meanwhile challenging science to reopen the cases.

Of the first named category are the Galley Hill, Ipswich, Olmo, Castenedolo, Foxhall, Savona, Moulin Quignon, Dartford, and Bury St. Edmunds discoveries, the types.

The second includes the famous "missing link," Pithecanthropus Erectus, accepted without hesitation or investigation; unseen by any but its discoverer for decades, and then found to be something quite different than had been supposed. To this class also belongs the Piltdown skull; the attempts to distort the significance of which are classic in the annals of scientific prejudice.

The third is the habit of dating such ruins as those of Mexico, Crete, the Gobi, the Pacific Isles, and countless others, by archeological theories of culture instead of the geological evidence, and thus arriving at "B.C." and "A.D." dates. For instance, had primitive remains been found in Cuicuilco, can any scientist deny that they would have been considered hundreds of thousands of years old?

Typical of the fourth was Professor Hrdlicka's attitude toward the Vero find -- though in that case unreasoning scientific prejudice met its Waterloo at the hands of scientists themselves; typical, Professor Hrdlicka's ideas about the Patagonian skull; typical, the pigeon-holing of Mr. Reid's discovery; typical, the treatment of the Carson footprints; typical, the Calaveras skull; typical indeed, the reception of Mr. Hubbard's discovery -- which nevertheless bides its time in the depths of the Grand Canyon to bring confusion to theory.

Useless to multiply examples; let the unprejudiced student delve for himself in the files of scientific records of other days, the journals dating back to 1800 and beyond. Let him unearth the moldering records of extraordinary discoveries thrown out of court without investigation, or discreetly buried without comment. He will then learn for himself how science has crippled and stultified itself; above all how easily the present upset of theory as to the age of humanity in America could have been forestalled.

CENTERS OF CIVILIZATION

Max Müller, for instance, says: "Many things are still unintelligible to us, and the hieroglyphic language of antiquity records but half of the mind's unconscious intentions. Yet more and more the image of man, in whatever clime we meet him, rises before us, noble and pure from the very beginning; even his errors we learn to understand, even his dreams we begin to interpret. As far as we can trace back the footsteps of man, even on the lowest strata of history, we see the divine gift of a sound and sober intellect belonging to him from the very first, and the idea of a humanity emerging slowly from the depths of an animal brutality can never be maintained again." (Isis Unveiled [1877] I, 4.)

Unless we mistake the signs, the day is approaching when the world will receive the proofs that only ancient religions were in harmony with nature, and ancient science embraced all that can be known. Secrets long kept may be revealed; books long forgotten and arts long time lost may be brought out to light again; papyri and parchments of inestimable importance will turn up in the hands of men who pretend to have unrolled them from mummies, or stumbled upon them in buried crypts; tablets and pillars, whose sculptured revelations will stagger theologians and confound scientists, may yet be excavated and interpreted. (Isis Unveiled, I, 38.)

The roots of our present institutions reach back to the Miocene Age. (Prof. Donnelly.)

THE above quotations from Isis are not theory or speculation; they are verified prophecies. But of what avail are they to those who heed not past errors or present confutations? Spineless slaves of time that we are, identifying ourselves and our interests with the passing moment, the world changes unnoticed year by year into a new universe, and prophecies of those wiser than we pass unrecorded into limbo.

All that is known confirms, implies, and reinforces the fact that cultural changes, amalgamations of civilizations, the growth of religions and philosophies, all require aeons of time. The rise and fall of individual nations are only flashes on the screen of time. A sudden apparent advance and expansion, like that of the present United States, or the Aztecs before Cortez, is not new in history or in causation. Every nation has had its birth, growth, and death; this is written ominously across every page of universal history, and still every vigorous, heedless young population dreams of eternal life and undying empire; only to follow its ancestors into oblivion.

"White Indians" in Panama; strange Mongolians in Brazil; the uncovering of a hitherto unguessed civilization at Assiout; a submerged city lost even to tradition (except in the tale of the "lotus eaters") in the Mediterranean; civilization equal to Egypt in her best days disinterred from the Cambodian jungle; traces of a lost people in the California Sierras; Chinese hieroglyphics of the archaic period on Nevada stones; Chinese remains and Chinese-speaking Indians in Mexico; the Khara-Khoto discovery so definitely predicted by Madame Blavatsky.

The vast age of Theosophy itself is on the verge of proof; if it can be further shown that the primeval spaces through which its stream flows, were verdant with a knowledge coequal with our own, or superior thereto, a "stock" opposing argument will be once and for all done away with -- the argument powerful with the materialistic who hold that knowledge depends upon modern mechanical apparatus, even though it be based solely upon unthinking prejudice, as it is.

It is asked: Why, if civilization is so old and has been so powerful, why are not the records clear? Why has knowledge been lost? Where are the written chronicles? Where are the ruins? It so happens, however, that a move to establish this doctrine, is not a campaign to establish a theory or a speculation, but a campaign against prejudice and to gain recognition of the true bearing of the facts at hand.

Admirers of modern "progress" assume that our works, our records, our inventions, are permanent and enduring. Modern egotism notwithstanding, ours is essentially a "gimcrack" civilization. Paper vanishes within a few years (our Declaration of Independence is on the verge of being lost forever, literally as well as metaphorically); metals rust; stones weather and disintegrate; even ferro-concrete, our most substantial invention -- and our one radical improvement over ancient building materials -- fails by steel corrosion and spalling, to become indistinguishable in a few hundred years from conglomerate natural stone. Stand upon a roof in New York, in London, Paris, or Los Angeles, and envisage the scene after a hundred thousand years of neglect. What would be recognized as a work of Man underneath the accumulation of debris?

The question, Why have civilizations perished? is now an academic one, for it is a condition and not a theory which faces us; they have perished, and some of our best brains are working night and day to discover the causes and apply the remedy to our own before it is too late. And some few have seen the cause rightly, in moral decadence.

Written records? Bunsen, studying Egyptian records, was forced to concede 70,000 years to that civilization. Iamblichus testifies that the Assyrians had recorded 270,000 years, and recently discovered Indian tablets go back 30,000 years.

The misunderstanding of these things, the classification of them as "fairy-tales," began with the days when the Ussher biblical chronology dominated even science, and continued under Darwinism because it fitted the "animal descent" theory. Hence such queer prejudices as those of Prof. Sayce, who says that the latest discoveries have set Indian history back to 3000 B.C., whereas less prejudiced authorities have taught for many years that the Kali Yuga, 3102 B.C., was established both historically and astronomically.

Records have been destroyed, like the Alexandrian manuscripts and the Central American records; for the brutality of the latter cultural massacre Bishop Landa was censured even by his Spanish Catholic superiors. Other records are still undiscovered or untranslated; like the Khara-Khoto literature. Many more will be forthcoming under fortuitous circumstances, like some of those discovered already of late.

Ancient wisdom is vast and deep; only prejudice blinds us to its scope. The Edwin Smith manuscript, just translated, shows the correct physiological wisdom of old Egypt; the passages in the Great Pyramid are admitted to have been transit instruments for catching the meridian, and the shadows of the pyramids recorded the day of year and hour of day. The Rhind Papyrus proves that Egypt 3000 years B.C. (then in its decadence) possessed a highly scientific mathematics; and in 2830 Egypt instituted the first (historical) food-control system.

In the ruins of Carthage (in its decline when destroyed by Rome) there were found check books, paper money, mirrors, cosmetics and powders, to say nothing of magnifying spectacles.

European "cave drawings" prove that "primitive men" knew of stars in the Pleiades visible only to powerful telescopes; and the mystery of the naming of the constellation "Ophiuchus" is still intriguing science.

Dr. Edward R. Hume demonstrates the precise and detailed medical knowledge of the ancient Chinese, and their anticipation of modern practice -- in many respects their great superiority therein. Ts'ai-lun made the first paper by modern methods in 75 A.D. -- ages after progress had ceased in China. The Chinese also anticipated us with the compass, the printing press, glass, the seismograph, the first metallic astronomical instruments, and a number of alloys.

As to India, there seem almost enough facts recorded in Isis Unveiled and The Secret Doctrine; but time continually adds. On the walls of caves have been found diagrams of flying machines to go with the terminology of aviation found in ancient Sanskrit; Col. James Churchward discovered, and in part published, 125 manuscripts, some going back 30,000 years, wherein are described the destruction of "Mu," Theosophically known as Atlantis, according to the Theosophical doctrine of the geologic causes; and in some of these tablets are described air vessels. Dr. Kassim's Indian library contains recipes which, if workable, will demonstrate that Indian physical science possessed secrets unguessed by modern science; what courageous savant will dare the laughter of his colleagues by testing them?

It has been found that in Yucatan at some undetermined period, there were scientists worthy to take rank with any modern. (New York Times, January, 1913.) These men, among other feats, constructed a clock which kept time for 2000 years, until destroyed by "Enlightened Christianity."

Prof. Curt Sachs has deciphered a manuscript of pre-Babylonian Sumeria which proves that some 4000 years ago music had reached its present stage of development -- and incidentally the hymn referred to was an allegorical account of the true origin of mankind by correlation of pre-existing intelligencies of various grades. Even backward and mysterious Abyssinia contributes, with an account in the Kebra Nagast of Solomon's flying machines, power boats, and (electric?) lights.

To prove the case, what needs to be elucidated is the origin and the mysterious, yet scientifically proven, connection between these cultures; the reasons for their subsidence; and to square up dates and prove Theosophic chronology authoritative, a geological correlation.

Material for all these we have; and with it propose to illuminate the path of mankind by reflecting upon it the lights of the past.

"CASCADIA"

There is sufficient evidence that the religious customs of the Mexicans, Peruvians, and other American races are nearly identical with those of the ancient Phoenicians, Babylonians, and Egyptians. (H. P. Blavatsky in Isis Unveiled, 1877.)

Identical glyphs, numbers, and esoteric symbols are found in Egypt, Peru, Mexico, Easter Island, India, Chaldea, and Central Asia. (H.P.B. in The Secret Doctrine, 1888.)

Now we find in the Zohar a very strange assertion,... It tells us that the serpent, which was used by Shamael ..., to seduce Eve, was a kind of flying camel.... Cuvier, who has reconstructed their skeletons, is a witness to "flying camels." ... It is well known that Antiquity has never claimed palæontography and palæontology among its arts and sciences; and it never had its Cuviers. Yet on Babylonian tiles, and especially in old Chinese and Japanese drawings, in the oldest Pagodas and monuments, and in the Imperial library at Peking, many a traveler has seen and recognised perfect representations of Plesiosauri and Pterodactyls in the multiform Chinese dragons....

I. How could the ancient nations know anything of the extinct monsters of the carboniferous and Mesozoic times, and even represent and describe them orally and pictorially, unless they had either seen those monsters themselves or possessed descriptions of them in their traditions, which descriptions necessitate living and intelligent eye-witnesses?

II. And if such eye-witnesses are once admitted ..., how can humanity and the first palæolithic men be no earlier than about the middle of the tertiary period? ... most of the men of science will not allow man to have appeared before the Quaternary period, and thus shut him out completely from the Cenozoic times.... Evidently either the Mesozoic time has to be made to overlap the Quaternary period, or man must be made the contemporary of the Pterodactyl and the Plesiosaurus. ... Pterodactyls and Plesiosauri ceased to exist with the bulk of the Third Race. (S.D. II, 205-206.)

...at least one great man of science, de Quatrefages, sees no good scientific reasons why man should not have been "contemporaneous with the earliest mammalia and go back as far as the Secondary Period." (S.D. II, 219.)

...how much more logical to believe -- as the Occultists do -- that ... many humanities, differing from our present mankind, ... appeared but to disappear from the face of the earth, as our own will. Those primitive and far-distant humanities, having, as geologists think, left no tangible relics of themselves, are denied. All trace of them is swept away, and therefore they have never existed. Yet their relics -- a very few of them, truly -- are to be found, and they have to be discovered by geological research. (S.D. I, 609.)

CERTAIN centers -- geographical, cultural, biological, or all three -- for some reason become islands amid the roaring seas of universal change.

Through millions of years a little spot on the Nevada-California boundary -- referred to as a part of lost Atlantis in The Secret Doctrine -- has survived its many cataclysms as a sort of permanent continental nucleus, finally to arrive at upsetting modern scientific complacency and destroying laboriously constructed theories. The discovery of "Cascadia," as it has been called, also illuminates as by a lightning flash H.P.B.'s enigmatic reference to "ruins strewn along and beyond the Rocky Mountains."

Text-books still teach that man "descended from ape-like ancestors somewhere in Central Asia." But this theory, held with touching faith, has become a mere credo resultant upon fixed habits of thought rather than upon concrete evidence at hand. Moreover, after the discoveries of the last three or four years, in Mexico and Central America in general, it has degenerated still further into a mere "Credo quia absurdum est."

Allan le Baron's discoveries in "Cascadia" have suddenly cut the Gordian knot by providing a new center of racial origin, which, according to the evidence at hand, antedates by far anything so far discovered in Europe; even to a greater extent than the Cuicuilco civilization. Space lacks for a full description of these discoveries, which will be found in the San Francisco Examiner during the summer of 1924; and more may be heard from them, as the Examiner is pushing the investigation.

Professor Keene, of the University of London, had asserted already that some of the Mexican remains date back 500,000 years; but le Baron's finds go back still further.

In "Cascadia" were found pictographs identical in form with Egyptian, Chaldean, Babylonian, Chinese, and Arabian symbols; some of them very plainly, to the Theosophic eye, among the first cosmic symbols of the Wisdom-Religion from which all minor faiths branched and which in its purity survives today as Theosophy.

Four features of this sign writing indicate its formidable age:

1. It is primitive and unpolished in character; the same signs elsewhere, known to be at least 7,000 years old (in our opinion more like 70,000), are effete and decadent in comparison. Therefore these signs are looked upon by the discoverers as the origin of those used elsewhere.

2. There is no known tradition of migrations or crossings explaining the connection between these and the Asian signs, other than the echoes of forgotten Atlantis.

3. There are pictures of dinosaurs and extinct forms of animal life, though perhaps not as unmistakable as those found by the Hubbard Expedition in Grand Canyon, or by W. L. Chalmers at Grand Lake in the Colorado Rockies.

4. There is "desert varnish" and evidence of subsequent volcanic action over the inscriptions. The Examiner rhetorically asks that Geology explain what age this indicates. But Geology will not dare to do so -- as yet.

For a long time the connection between man and the great reptiles will be a stumbling block, since according to accepted theories, dinosaurs were extinct some 10,000,000 years before the mammalian age; though, as it happens, a discovery was made by the last Hubbard expedition -- of which Prof. Charles W. Gilmore, of the U.S. National Museum, was a member -- which will ultimately upset all present theories on the subject.

Even the scientific mind yields before sufficient evidence; the old location of the origin of man has had its death-warrant written for some years, and the signature is now affixed. Thus a new theory, and wider outlook, begins to rise, and men of science are coming to think that:

1. America and not Asia is the "Garden of Eden";

2. Mankind is immensely older than has been supposed; the ancient civilizations of Asia were full-blown and in some cases decadent at the dawn of "history." Therefore their origins have to be found elsewhere, and the age of mankind is pushed back, according to some, 2,000,000 or more years.

3. There was an occupied Lemuria or Atlantis, somewhat confused at present.

This change of thought is strictly in the direction of the truth as taught by Theosophy. However, from the very manner in which it was arrived at, all its lines are jumbled, and the picture presented is a phantasmagoria rather than a panorama.

The true synthesis can come only from Theosophy, which is history, not deduced theories. By that history alone can a satisfactory development of the races be uncovered.

Both scientific theories are partly right; both are very incomplete. Lemuria, filling the Pacific, did exist, and the first civilized cities were built on that portion of its soil now known as Madagascar. Atlantis, whose greatest center was in the Atlantic, was fact, and in it lay the origin of all our institutions, as well as of our troubles, of today. Both of these, and then Central Asia in turn, became centers for the radiation of a new and transformed racial stock over-running the world.

The remains of these migrations and transformations are underfoot everywhere. Seen through a glass darkly by modern science, they present a troublous history without unifying continuity; and the "straight-line" theory of history, favored over the cyclic, presents an almost impassable barrier to understanding.

The realization of ignorance is the beginning of true wisdom. Could science divest its mind of theory and conceit, and, kneeling before the ancient altars of history and philosophy, begin in a reverent and humble spirit to pick up the lost threads anew, more progress would be made in a year than has been made in a century.

But, for this, that pride which leads men to prefer their own mistakes to the wisdom of others must be left behind; the "ape-ancestor" theory, so flattering to modern man, and so benumbing to the sense of responsibility, must be returned to limbo whence it came. For that theory must be substituted the vision of a race mental and spiritual in its original nature, becoming incarnate pari passu with the crystallization of matter from its substratum under the influence of primeval, impersonal cosmic intelligence. It must be understood that the Ashvatta Tree grows with its branches downward, and that the origin of mind is not to be sought in matter; on the contrary, the origin of matter rests with the mental basis of objective cognition -- Mulaprakriti.

ATLANTIS--"AND THE SEA SHALL GIVE UP ITS DEAD"

The term "Atlantean" must not mislead the reader to regard these as one race only, or even a nation. It is as though one said "Asiatics." ... There were brown, red, yellow, white and black Atlanteans; giants and dwarfs ... (The Secret Doctrine, II, 433, fn.)

In the early part of the Tertiary Age, the most brilliant civilization the world has ever known flourished at a period when the Haeckelian man-ape is conceived to have roamed through the primeval forests, ... The monsters bred in sin and shame by the Atlantean giants, "blurred copies" of their bestial sires, and hence of modern man (Huxley), now mislead and overwhelm with error the speculative Anthropologist of European Science. (S.D., II, 679.)

"... The Greeks were but the dwarfed and weak remnant of that once glorious nation...."

What was this nation? The secret doctrine teaches that it was the latest, seventh sub-race of the Atlanteans, already swallowed up in one of the early sub-races of the Aryan stock, ... Descending from the high plateaux of Asia, where the two Races had sought refuge in the days of the agony of Atlantis, it had been slowly settling and colonizing the freshly emerged lands.... Egypt and Greece, the Phoenicians, and the Northern stocks, had thus proceeded from that one sub-race....

Did not the Spaniards in the Cibola expeditions meet with WHITE savage chiefs; and has not the presence of African negro types in Europe in the pre-historic ages been now ascertained? It is this presence of a type associated with that of the negro, and also with that of the Mongolian, which is the stumbling-block of anthropology. (S.D., II, 743-44.)

THE truth of a thesis may be directly perceived, as with the axioms of mathematics. Or it may be indirectly approached by a meticulous accumulation of facts; heaped up against the day when, perchance, some flash of direct perception -- intuition -- shall delineate the obscure framework.

The former is the method of Theosophy; or rather, of Those who gave it. There are other axioms in the Universe than those of mathematics. But the mind enslaved to matter -- the race mind -- cannot see them as such; for it, there remains the scientific approach. In Theosophy, as in mathematics which forms a part thereof, there is a subsidiary efflorescence of doctrine which proves its origin by its results demonstrable to the eye of physical man.

A snowflake is no great matter; a contradictory fact can be set aside -- for a time. But enough of snowflakes break the strongest ridgepole. In 1882 Ignatius Donnelly pointed out an alarming accumulation on the scientific roof of facts regarding Atlantis. Six years later, H. P. Blavatsky, continuing her teachings instituted in 1875, quoted Donnelly amid a mass of other pertinent arguments. Where facts cannot be denied, they can be ignored; and both Donnelly and H.P.B. were stigmatized as romancers when not liars.

Times have changed; Atlantis is now under the scientific microscope. However, there are and always will be some who test the whole field by their own acre. Prof. Bateson is agnostic regarding the whole case of evolution because biology furnishes no explanation. Dr. Osborn is indignant because he possesses facts lending themselves -- when forced -- to his own special interpretations. Even now, while Professors Macmillan Brown and Simmons, fully convinced, are adding to the vast Atlantean museum, Dr. Osborn and Prof. Chamberlain deny the ancient continent point-blank -- Dr. Osborn, because his reputation is bound up with a Darwinian hypothesis which does not allow for it; Prof. Chamberlain, because his geological studies of continental structure seem to go against it. Yet it is well known that sedimentary rocks are found at the highest altitudes. Given such fearful upheavals, why not as great subsidences? In fact, irrespective of theory, they must follow.

The scientist Geoffroy, who accompanied Napoleon to Egypt, brought back sketches of a unique bat, which has not been seen by anyone else, and remains a mystery. In 1917 the American Museum of Natural History rediscovered the bat in Porto Rico. In 1923 a fossil Gingko leaf was found at Spokane. The former discovery proves America to have been connected with Africa; the latter, with both Asia and Africa. But these, definite as they are, are but small drops in the monsoon which is in full blast everywhere. Moreover, this evidence is all circumstantial, and if accepted, can be relegated to the ages "before man." Theosophy has use for proofs of Donnelly's remark, that "the roots of our present institutions go back to the Miocene Age." Now we have that which not only settles the question of civilized Atlantis, but pushes civilization at least 20,000 years nearer the Miocene times. We now have Atlantis rediscovered.

A strange Karma pursues the Schliemann family. Prof. E. Schliemann, the elder, endured the contempt of science for many years, at last to carve himself a deep niche in the hall of fame by his discovery of the real city of Troy. He had firm faith in Atlantis, from the same kind of evidence which led him to Troy. Why not, since Troy was an Atlanto-Aryan colony?

Prof. Paul Schliemann has followed in his father's footsteps to the discovery of Atlantis -- or rather, its remnant, Poseidonis. His book will be published in Germany shortly.

Much of a fifteen years' course of research was passed in submarine exploration. There are numerous submerged mountain peaks near the African coast; his finds were made upon these. The first was a wall fragment, showing an artistic frieze which he calls "running figures"; in reality the representation of a ceremonial dance. A mile from this was another, showing men and animals. Both are evidently from the local stone which forms the sea-bed here. In another place Prof. Schliemann walked into an ancient cave-temple of highly artistic construction; deep under water, and in the neighborhood of 200 miles off shore. Elsewhere, on another submerged peak, were found many pieces of statuary, one of which represents a sensual, semi-negroid but very intelligent face of the kind described in ancient Asiatic chronicles.

Prof. Schliemann discusses the similarity -- the identity -- between African and Central American art; all of which is so familiar with readers of Atlantis and students of The Secret Doctrine that we need not enlarge thereupon.

Upon the African coast he found two great forgotten highways leading to the sea; port roads, he thinks. Lehmann found the same phenomenon in Central America. Moreover, Prof. Schliemann found unrecorded and unexplained lighthouse towers on the African coast, which he thinks were built by civilized Atlantean navigators. Can one not envision the "mythical" Western race described by Homer, whose vessels "went without sails or oars"? Have we not here a picture of the surprise caused the nascent, still barbarous Greek civilization, by navigators of a decadent but high civilization? Navigators coasting the Greek shores as Magellan coasted the Philippines ages later?

Prof. Schliemann does not say why these remains were found on the highest peaks. Theosophy teaches that the broken continent had been subsiding erratically for millenniums; without doubt the inhabitants lived in terror of a cataclysm, and sought the highest peaks, possibly cultivating the lowlands, as did the Pueblos later for other reasons. The ocean bottom at the scene of Prof. Schliemann's explorations shows volcanic action, which calls to mind the description of the bursting of gas pockets in the Indian manuscripts, dating back 30,000 years, found by Col. Churchward.

Prof. Schliemann, believing the "first man" to have evolved on Atlantis, adds a fourth to the present theories of the scene of Man's genesis. Perhaps when the Arctic is fully explored, we shall have a fifth and correct one. None of the theorists at all approach the true age of man. The Bamian statues, described in the Literary Digest, January 10, 1925, are representations of mankind in a day when the very laws of matter were other than now. In the neighborhood of 200 feet high, they represent the stature of mankind when matter was still diffuse; when, in scientific terms, the orbits of the electrons had not been circumscribed to their present limits. The present plaster casings representing Buddha were added aeons later by Buddhist Arhats.

To what does all this tend? Perchance to that distant day when all thinkers will see in mankind that which it really is -- a concourse of indomitable, immortal spiritual entities, alternately conquering matter, alternately abusing its powers and falling into oblivion, to begin anew. Then will come an understanding that man is not an animal, but a spirit conjoined with an animal; that his true salvation, and release, from the cycles of life, lie not in the animal duty of self-preservation, but in the spiritual duty of self-sacrifice, which is preservation of ALL-SELF.

STORIES IN STONES

...man, in this Round, preceded every mammalian -- the anthropoids included -- in the animal kingdom. (The Secret Doctrine, 1888, II, p. 1.)

...he [man] and his highest faculties cannot be proved on any conclusive evidence to be "as much products of evolution as the humblest plant or the lowest worm." (Isis Unveiled I, 153.)

... The antediluvian ancestors of the present elephant and lizard were, perhaps, the mammoth and plesiosaurus; why should not the progenitors of our [present] human race have been the "giants" of the Vedas, the Völuspa, and the Book of Genesis? (Isis Unveiled I, 153.)

These "Men" of the Third Race -- the ancestors of the Atlanteans -- were just such ape-like, intellectually senseless giants as were those beings, who, during the Third Round, represented Humanity. (S.D., I, 190.)

The claim that physical man was originally a colossal pre-tertiary giant, and that he existed 18,000,000 years ago, must of course appear preposterous to admirers of, and believers in, modern learning. (S.D., II, 9.)

... The fact that the bones of the mammoth and mastodon, and, in one case, those of a gigantic salamander, have been mistaken for human bones, does not make away with the difficulty that, of all the mammalians, man is the only one whom science will not allow to have dwarfed down, like all other animals, from the giant homo diluvii to the creature between five and six feet that he is now. (S.D., II, 352.)

And, as the very existence of those gigantic ancestors of ours is now questioned -- though in the Himavats, on the very territory belonging to you, we have a cave full of the skeletons of these giants -- and their huge frames when found are invariably regarded as isolated freaks of nature, so the vril or Akás -- as we call it -- is looked upon as an impossibility, a myth. (Letter from a Mahatma, decade of 1888.)

BETWEEN the methods of Theosophy and the methods of science two radical differences exist. Theosophy teaches that attempted acquisition of knowledge in the absence of a true ethical attitude within the investigator is self-obstructive; and it upholds a moral standard undreamed-of by science. Whereas science teaches that knowledge has nothing to do with ethics.

Theosophy further teaches that the Universe, proceeding from an indivisible primal Existence, can no more contain divisions between forms of knowledge than can the ocean separate its drops. To this science renders lip-service and diverges from it in practice.

True synthesis resides in Theosophy alone; but cannot be found there by scientists whose pride and prejudice prevents their study therein. Thus operates Karma.

Whosoever denies the existence of Soul, in his heart, unfeelingly and without proof, condemns to despair every man whose physical life has not been a success. If immortality be a truth, it dwarfs all other truths which are, or are to be, discovered. Scientists who render it an a priori denial, without proof, by this wanton and selfish negation cut themselves off from ever determining as a fact whether it be true or false.

A noted biologist recently stated that he refused to accept the possibility of a vital principle because it would cut off hope of further knowledge through the methods of science. This attitude constitutes the sole "proof" of the soul's non-existence possessed by science -- and not a word from any colleague was heard in protest against this attitude. Thus there is no scientific "proof" of the soul. Since the axiom at the base of scientific methods is its denial, is there any means whereby such methods can prove or disprove, whatever the facts may be? Nevertheless, there can be made visible, even to the most hardened, the numerous and ineluctable difficulties arising from this denial.

Laying aside claim and pretense, and looking at facts undefiled, upon what base is the animal ancestry of man constructed? In truth, its material is the law of analogy; and its mortar, acceptance of man as a soulless animal. It is, nevertheless logical throughout, provided we are blind to any psychic difference between man and animal.

If we admit such an immaterial factor -- and its proofs are legion -- then we have to postulate, in accordance with the processes of Nature, a law governing its evolution. Theosophy has that law, and in addition presents a history of man's physical evolution far more in accordance with analogy, with the proven modes of natural action, than any scientific theory.

Among the contradictions of the scientific theory is this: Either there is a mind, a soul in man, distinct from any possession of the animal kingdom, or there is not. If it does not exist, then everything in man is a development of a trait latent in the animal, and human mind is a sublimated animal mind. Then, since in all geological history the animal mind has undergone only such slight change as the difference between the highest and lowest animals, how could the human mind, that of -- scientifically -- the youngest of the animals, have undergone such vastly greater development?

If there is a soul, a psychic difference between man and animal, whence its origin? If he has always possessed it, has it not set him apart from the whole line of animal evolution; directed for him a different destiny then as now?

Theosophy, seeing no break in natural processes, solves the whole difficulty and reconciles both views logically. In truth, the human soul is latent in the animal; in truth, it is in him separate, distinct, and independent in action, and was developed by precisely the endless process, in vast and distant periods, called for by logic and analogy. Thus Man is the heir of the ages, in his physical body antedating the mammals, in his soul antedating the solar system. On a day which will be seen by many a reader, science will be forced to recognize the meganthropos, the co-dweller with the giant animals.

Thirty odd years ago, a Mr. Hull was led to a remarkable discovery by Indians of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Samuel Hubbard, Curator of the Oakland Museum, fell heir to this discovery, and for these three decades has found himself a martyr seething in the fires of scientific contempt and derision.

In the Autumn of 1924, Mr. Hubbard at last succeeded in obtaining backing, and even the company of an orthodox scientist, Dr. Charles W. Gilmore, of the United States National Museum. In the course of the expedition the discoveries described in this magazine in June, 1924, were photographed, casts were taken, moving pictures of the casting process secured, and the whole discovery amplified.

The points in the discovery now made scientifically "respectable" are the actual existence of the ibex in America -- which confounds present theories; (note well that the Ibex is found associated in Europe with those cave-men who were the remnants of Atlantis); carvings of mammoths, dinosaurs, and ostriches; symbols of the Wisdom-Religion; a vast number of carvings and drawings admittedly confusing and unexplainable to science; and dinosaur tracks in the same slab of rock with tracks of a feline animal of apparently modern type. This last discovery upsets the whole scientific relation of the animal periods. And, as in the "Cascadia" discovery, many of the carvings are covered with "desert varnish," which betokens an age out of all relation to accepted theories as to human descent.

Dr. Gilmore acknowledges the tremendous scientific importance of these discoveries, over his own signature, in a manner which lifts Mr. Hubbard from the ranks of the charlatan to which he has so long been relegated.

Dr. Gilmore saw the sandstone tracks of giant human beings. He saw a petrified body also. But Dr. Gilmore sees in the body precisely "an isolated freak of nature." As to the tracks, after trying to explain them as the remains of some kind of peculiar shellfish -- certainly an improvement on the "ground-sloth" usually advanced in such cases -- he frankly threw up his hands and left them as "unexplained." However, they do not present quite so much difficulty to the Theosophist; and to him, likewise, there is no mystery in the appearance of dotted inscriptions of the kind described by H. P. Blavatsky as the written records of the earlier races. Some day the "rosetta stone" for these ancient runes, so widely distributed over the world, will be found. And then will be seen a true Ragnarok of the gods of science.

The times move, even though to impatient enthusiasm for truth their pace seems dream-like; and the day is not far off when, as H. P. Blavatsky predicted, Darwinism will form but a modified part of the true and all-inclusive view, which sees spiritual power and spiritual intelligence as the dominating factors behind every manifestation.

What will be the effect of such a change, whenever it may come? Visualize a state of things wherein men will know themselves to be timeless and ageless, will know that physical being is worthless except insofar as it serves the far-off aims of Soul; wherein they will know that, as the body lives by food, the Soul lives by the practice of the virtues, by altruism on the highest plane -- the altruism which reckons metes of no limits, and bears in its action no taint of self-centering.

A RETURNING CYCLE

It is through these "Sons of God" that infant humanity got its first notions of all the arts and sciences, as well as of spiritual knowledge; and it is they who have laid the first foundation-stone of those ancient civilizations that puzzle so sorely our modern generation of students and scholars. (H. P. Blavatsky, The Secret Doctrine, 1888, I, 208.)

But very happily actual history repeats herself, for she proceeds, like everything else, in cycles; and dead facts and events deliberately drowned in the sea of modern scepticism will ascend once more and reappear on the surface.... (The Secret Doctrine, I, 676.)

...one great man of science, de Quatrefages, sees no good scientific reasons why man should not have been "contemporaneous with the earliest mammalia and go back as far as the Secondary Period." (The Secret Doctrine, II, 219.)

Yet Schliemann proved that Troy had really existed, ... How many more cities and localities called "fabulous" are on the list of future discoveries, ... those alone can tell who read the decrees of Fate ... (The Secret Doctrine, II, 236.)

Future finds will justify the correctness of the present observations of such acute minds as H. A. Taine and Renan. The former shows that the civilizations of such archaic nations as the Egyptians, Aryans of India, Chaldeans, Chinese, and Assyrians are the result of preceding civilizations during "myriads of centuries"; ... (The Secret Doctrine, II, 334.)

They divided the interminable periods of human existence on this planet into cycles, during each of which mankind gradually reached the culminating point of highest civilization and gradually relapsed into abject barbarism....

The ancients knew more concerning certain sciences than our modern savants have yet discovered. (H.P.B. in Isis Unveiled, 1877, Vol. I, 5 and 25.)

Professor James H. Breasted, the Egyptologist, has recently come upon a document which offers new proof of the astonishing knowledge possessed by the ancient peoples of the Nile. In a papyrus of 1600 B.C., it is revealed that Egyptian physicians were perfectly familiar with the cause of paralysis and discussed the treatment of it in terms which are far from amateur to the specialist 3600 years after them.

When one considers the fact that for nearly 3000 years the fact that a paralysis of one side of the body was caused by a brain affection on the other, was totally lost sight of, and that the malady itself was spoken of merely as a lameness, the civilization of these subjects of the Pharaoh is a reproach upon that of today.... With virtually every new fragment of writing turned up, some extraordinary modern practice is revealed as a common feature of Egyptian life, and the ancient writers discuss with what almost seems flippancy scientific achievements which the present day claims as its peculiar glory. Perhaps -- who can tell? -- it may presently be found that the Egyptians of 2000 B.C. resorted to the telegraph and telephone and that the Nile Valley was strung with wireless stations. (Editorial, Washington Post, April 17, 1925.)

THE seeming of modern civilization is that of an onward-rushing, irresistible force growing in power and sweep by geometrical ratio. The popular belief is that a young human race, once and for all emerged from an indeterminate period of semi-animal existence, is fated to solve all problems, master forevermore the forces of nature.

Such is the power of Maya, "the Mighty Magic of Prakriti." For greater illusion never existed. We live, move, and have our being upon the powdered dust of vanished races as numerous, of civilizations as powerful, as any of our dreams. A young world, a humanity sprung from the animal a few millenniums ago? Forsooth, civilized relics are embedded in strata contemporary with the dinosaur!

To say so, means to stir up derision among the mighty. But truth and the future are Theosophy's handmaidens; not for us to withhold facts even under the seeming of fairy-tales!

Conceit denies the possible loss of such civilizations; there must be records left; progress must be continuous and imperishable! But consider the consequences should perhaps 100,000 "manasaputra" be removed from the race overnight, leaving but the dull average of the racial mind, which never grows beyond the age of fourteen; let the mighty stream of Atlanto-Egyptian-Roman Egos suddenly cease to incarnate and revanish into the Chiliocosm -- what would remain in a century? A tribe of white savages, stupidly and incuriously gazing upon the crumbling works of their forefathers, loading slingshots with shattered concrete and broken brick!

The works of primeval man have been denied because not apparent; but that is becoming a condition of the past. Startling relics in the midst of civilization are being seen for what they are; "natural" formations are found not so "natural" after all!

In Rockwall County, Texas, such a formation, known since 1854, is now to be unearthed. Some saw in it from the first, a human work, and were pooh-poohed in accustomed manner. The mills of science grind slowly -- and they grind exceeding little!

An old Arizona lake bed produces "what may have been the biggest city in America." And its evidences of civilization set afoot speculation as to Atlantis and polygenesis of races.

From Gaviota to Rincon, California, are over sixty towns of a Mongolian race found in tradition neither of East or West; some of their relics embedded in rocks "stratified for ages." And civilized men have lived for a century atop these ruins unknowingly!

In the Muddy and Virgin River Valleys of Nevada is a settlement eight miles wide by thirty-five long; a lost civilization possessed of glazed floors, artistic pottery, jewelry, and dice! And here the skeletons average over seven feet tall. The excavator, Curator of the Museum of the American Indian, expects work to go on "until the riddle is completely solved!" But no true solution will come in this generation -- save for those who resort to the pages of The Secret Doctrine.

Another such is the ruin of Casa Grande, Arizona; here there were beads found so small that only a hair could be passed through the holes; the reporter naïvely remarks that this is the more remarkable, inasmuch as "these people were in the stone age and had no metal!" Most significant of all to the Theosophist, is their possession of Masonic symbols.

Dr. E. F. Greenman says that the ancient copper miners of Michigan were skilled in surgery; and some of his discoveries move the chronicle to remark that "Michigan may some day rival the Valley of the Nile as a stamping ground for archeologists."

Farther afield, Prof. Frobenius has found three extinct civilizations in Africa, which he dates at about 6000 B.C. (Strange how hard it is to escape the influence of these "B.C." and "A.D." dates!) Among these ruins he found relics of still older cultures.

"Three Thousand B.C." -- again an unverifiable minimal date -- Irak, in Mesopotamia, held a culture which "in many respects revolutionizes the present history of civilization and architecture." Column construction, supposedly of a much later date, was found here; and also evidence of the use of horses, another upset. Decadence had even then set in; for there were plenty of manicure sets, dishes for face paint, jeweled mirrors, etc., as in Old Carthage recently disinterred by Count Prorok.

Another researcher says that Chinese traditions go back for 100,000 years; and mentions as contrast to modern civilization the empire of Malek Shah, which in the 11th Century reached from China to the Mediterranean, and could be safely traversed from end to end by a child carrying a bag of gold.

By means of pilot balloons, it has just been found that all constituents of the air save hydrogen cease at sixty miles; but the ancient Goladhyaya says that "The atmosphere surrounds the earth to the height of sixty miles, and clouds, lightning and the like are all phenomena connected with it!"

In standard works the hieroglyphics on the pebbles of the "cave-man" have been considered mere aimless ornamentation, in spite of their significant form (see Prof. Osborn's Men of the Old Stone Age). But light has dawned upon Prof. William Paulcke, who recognizes their true nature, and bases upon it a theory that men began writing 50,000 to 100,000 years ago. Moreover, says he, there is a relationship between these symbols and those of the Chinese, Babylonians, Egyptians, and Mayas.

New information comes to hand about the discovery of P. Kosloff at Khara Khoto in the Gobi Desert, previously mentioned by us. It seems that among the thousands of volumes exhumed by him from a vault, there were many in a language unknown to philology -- definitely mentioned by H. P. Blavatsky as having existed in this region; she moreover describes hidden crypts of exactly the nature of that found by Kosloff.

Now it so "happened" that there was a key with those mysterious volumes; and we surmise that it is more than likely that the unknown language is Senzar. In which case, these words will have been written to some purpose:

Unless we mistake the signs, the day is approaching when the world will receive the proofs that only ancient religions were in harmony with nature, and ancient science embraced all that can be known. Secrets long kept may be revealed; books long forgotten and arts long time lost may be brought out to light again; papyri and parchments of inestimable importance will turn up in the hands of men who pretend to have unrolled them from mummies, or stumbled upon them in buried crypts; tablets and pillars, whose sculptured revelations will stagger theologians and confound scientists, may yet be excavated and interpreted. (Isis Unveiled, I, 38.)

And now that it is generally admitted that the climate of earth has been always inhabitable, for practical purposes, and that it was never gaseous, hot, or molten -- perhaps before long H.P.B.'s teaching that man in approximately his present form is over 18,000,000 years old, will be regarded with more tolerance. And what then?

Perhaps when it is found that mankind is no new evolution, but has survived æon upon æon, lived through the vicissitudes of continental upheavals and glacial epochs: that he has by turn risen to great heights and fallen into savagery -- there may be an attempt to discover the real purpose of being. Then it will be found that the illusions of power and progress, the philosophy of glutted desires, lead only to death and the dust. Be it race or nation, or individual man, "He who attendeth to the inclinations of the senses, in them hath a concern; from this concern is created passion, from passion anger, from anger is produced delusion, from delusion a loss of the memory, from the loss of memory loss of discrimination, and from loss of discrimination loss of all!" -- the spiritual condition of the bulk of mankind in this our present age of Kali Yuga.

A WILDERNESS OF ILLUSIONS

The council of the association affirms that the evidences in favor of the evolution of man are sufficient to convince every scientist of note in the world, and that these evidences are increasing in number and importance every year. (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1922; Science, May 29, 1925.)

It is an indubitable historic fact that man is immediately descended from apes, and more remotely from a long line of lower vertebrates. (Prof. Ernst Haeckel.)

As far as science has discovered, there always was a man -- some not so developed, but still human beings in all their functions, much as we are today. (Dr. Clark Wissler, curator-in-chief, anthropological section, American Museum of Natural History, New York.)

Paleontology tells us nothing on the subject -- it knows no ancestors of man. (Prof. W. Branco, director of the Institute of Geology and Paleontology, University of Berlin.)

I know nothing of the origin of man except what I am told in the Scriptures -- that God created him. I do not know any more than that, and I do not know of anyone who does. (Sir William Dawson, president of McGill University.)

The only statement consistent with her dignity that Science can make is to say that she knows nothing about the origin of man. (Prof. Reinke.)

We can not teach, nor can we regard as one of the results of scientific research, that man is descended from the ape or any other animal. (Prof. Virchow.)

It isn't certain that man ascended from the monkey, but it is the most reasonable hypothesis. Therefore I admit it and teach it in my book. (Prof. Pinard.)

To search for the "Missing Link" is useless. (H. P. Blavatsky in The Secret Doctrine, 1888, I, 184, fn.) ...the "missing link," such as to prove the existing theory undeniably, will never be found by palæontologists. (S.D. II, 260.)

Thus Occultism rejects the idea that Nature developed man from the ape, or even from an ancestor common to both, but traces, on the contrary, some of the most anthropoid species to the Third Race man of the early Atlantean period. ... the "ancestor" of the present anthropoid animal, the ape, is the direct production of the yet mindless Man, who desecrated his human dignity by putting himself physically on the level of an animal. (S.D. II, 185 et seq.)

...it was these third Race "men" who, through promiscuous connection with animal species lower than themselves, created that missing link which became ages later (in the tertiary period only) the remote ancestor of the real ape as we find it now in the pithecoid family. (S.D. I, 190.)

THE discordant voices of Speculation -- and the words of Knowledge! Empirical and groping theory contrasted with the records of actual, though secret, History!

Where scientists of note can so contradict one another, there is reason to set aside "authority" and to search out facts. Where a "weird and bizarre" doctrine can show a consistent power of prophecy so many years in advance, while "common-sense" falls into war with itself, it is high time the bases of that "common-sense" were examined.

What is there about these "evidences" which leads to such contradictions? Fortunately for illustration, we have just had a typical example -- the Taungs discovery.

Here the geological fact is that the skull of a baby ape, somewhat distorted by pressure, was found in a stratum of indeterminate age. The biological fact is that this skull, as related to man, was on a par with the present gorilla and chimpanzee, though belonging to a new genus. The historical and psychological fact -- and let reliers upon "authority" heed well -- is that Prof. Dart, the finder, led by the excitement of discovery, perchance also deluded by the sweet voice of beckoning fame, and unversed in the biologic traits of ape development, saw here a type "intermediate between the gorilla and Pithecanthropus Erectus" -- thus a true "missing link" -- and so published his "discovery" to the world.

Let the report speak:

"The most definite thing we can say about it as yet," said Prof. Dart, "is that the type is an ancestral one, which, as Prof. Elliott Smith has stated, is intermediate between the gorilla and pithecanthropus (the Java ape man).

"Consequently it is reasonable to assume that it lived before the pithecanthropus --and the age of that has been assessed at half a million years.

"The only way of arriving at the age of the fossil was by calculating the succession of strata. The Taungs deposit was of such nature, however, that the study of the succession of strata was extraordinarily difficult.

"We are," he said, "not positive when the actual lime cliff was formed, although it probably occurred some time in the tertiary period." [Italics ours.] (Interview by Universal Service, Capetown, March 21, 1925.)

Now let us examine Prof. Smith's final verdict:

Prof. Raymond Dart's discovery at Taungs, in Bechuanaland, of a fossilized anthropoid skull had been claimed as the link that hitherto had been missing. But it was not one of the significant things for which they had been searching. It was an unmistakable ape, nearly akin to those still living in Africa, the chimpanzee and gorilla, and there was no justification for the creation of a new family, though it represented a new genus.

It was unfortunate that Prof. Dart had no access to skulls of infant gorillas, chimpanzees, or orangs, of an age corresponding to that of the Taungs skull, for had such material been available he would have realized that the posture and poise of the head, the shape of the jaws, and many details of the nose, face, and cranium, upon which he relied for proof of his contention that Australopithecus was more nearly akin to man, were essentially identical with the conditions met with in the infant gorilla and chimpanzee. (London lecture reported by A.P., June 13, 1925.)

And for an example of the manner in which a towering scientific theory can be erected upon a foundation of illusion, the reader is referred to Prof. Dart's own remarks. (Literary Digest, March 28, 1925.) With unconscious and biting irony, Prof. Dart therein disposes of the "ape-ancestor" theory in toto! For this fact of the inverse development of the ape skull -- its growing loss of humanoid characteristics -- shows the anthropoids to be a degenerate species, more likely to have descended from man than to have been his ancestors. And scientists of note have seen this and remarked upon it.

The truth shrieks aloud from a comparative photograph of human and gorilla skeletons in the San Francisco Chronicle, April 12, 1925. The unnatural engrafting is evident in every line of the bones -- corroborating the awkward build and carriage of the living anthropoid, in such contrast with the graceful monkey. And the monkey, by the way, has been found by blood tests not to be on the same line of descent as man and ape. (Science, May 8, 1925.)

More than this, there has never been a "primitive" man discovered who was an ancestor of present man; all have to be relegated to branches of an absolutely imaginary main stock. (See diagram, Literary Digest, March 28, 1925, and Prof. Osborn's Men of the Old Stone Age.)

Prof. Dart's faux pas is no isolated phenomenon in evolutionism; the wretched pithecanthropus, the sole tangible piece of direct evidence to date, was never seen by the scientists who builded thereupon, until the other day! And thus for generations the public was kept in ignorance of the fact that those who spoke so learnedly of its nature had only second-hand information, which has proven delusive! (Science, April 24, 1925; August 17, 1923.) One day an astonished and angered public will awaken to the unforgivable manner in which these evidences have been "doctored," perverted, and manufactured. One can only hope that the reaction will not lead back into another outburst of religious superstition -- for Darwinism is far closer the truth than are the creeds.

Truth moves slowly; vested error is pertinacious. Writing in the New York Times, February 15, 1925, a scientist who is in a position to know better, sets down the pithecanthropus in a direct line of descent with the lemur, Old World monkey, Chimpanzee, and Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon men, as ancestors of modern man; and piles Ossa upon Pelion by denying the existence of man in America before the glacial periods, while classifying the Calaveras skull as an error!

But the cycle turns; new and startling discoveries are on the way, and a few years more will see that "revulsion of thought" predicted by H. P. Blavatsky. Recently some stone hammers, thought to be about 12,000,000 years old, and found under 100 feet of stone, were sent to the Smithsonian -- that venerable burying ground of important discoveries. One day, however, such relics will be resurrected; or, if lost, sought for like the Foxhall jawbone, now priceless, but lost since 1855 -- because the "science" of that day rejected it a priori!

With the untombing of murdered facts, the immemorial hosts of the "Sons of Fire," the thinking principle in mankind -- will "revisit the glimpses of the moon" under their true aspect; and their history -- a history of spiritual glories resigned that greater heights might be later achieved -- will live once more in the annals of mankind. The nightmare of materialism dispelled, there may be room once more for a civilization founded upon an understanding of the nature and purpose of Soul.






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